In a scientific research you have to include such reference and sources. But first you have to define a scientific research. It is the research carried out by the researcher to achieve great benefits. These benefits that contribute to supporting science and advancing it forward. Which is reflected positively on human civilization, and makes it develop further. There are many reasons that push the researcher to write a research.
These including the student's desire to obtain a scientific certificate. And curiosity in discovering scientific phenomena is one of the reasons for doing scientific research, and social status is the main reason for doing scientific research. For the scientific research to be a successful one, the researcher must return to a number of sources and references related to this scientific research, and the references are defined as previous studies that dealt with the scientific research. Sources and references contribute greatly to enriching scientific research.
There is a difference between sources and references in that the sources are the books that contain new information that no one has previously accessed, so the sources are the original. As for the references, they are books that depend on the sources, and they may be explanations for them.
The researcher does not use the entire reference, but rather searches within it for the part that will benefit him in the field of research he is doing. References are recent studies that treat the subject by assimilating the original material and reformulating it in a different way, and we can differentiate between the source and the reference on the basis of the relationship between them in the book and their connection to the topic of research.
- The documentation at the beginning of the sentence. So, write the last name of the author (s), then year of publication in parentheses at beginning of the sentence.
- Documentation at the end of the sentence. Write last name of the author (s), then the year of publication in parentheses at the end of the sentence.
The documentation in the list of references also aims to provide information about the references used by the researcher and allow others to access these references easily.
Specialists determined the nature of the references as having structured information, and therefore their use is limited to referring to them to obtain information that benefits the researcher only without reading the entire reference.
The difference between the regular book and the reference is that the regular book is read from beginning to the end, while the reference is the book that the researcher uses to obtain some information.
- Meant to be the place we refer to for certain information.
- It is not read completely, but information is selected from it, which is useful to the researcher in his research.
- It does not have a sequential series, so each part of it does not depend on the other parts of the same book.
- It's organized in a way that makes it easier for the researcher to access the information.
- Contains extensive information.
In general, we can mention that references are all that the researcher uses to complete his research and records them at the end of the research.
The importance of scientific research sources and references is that they are the places that the researcher needs to complete his scientific research in an accurate and systematic manner, and the research enjoys more credibility when there is a diversity between sources and references, and makes maximum use of them, and we can limit the importance of references in the following:
- Answer all questions asked by researchers
- Giving value to research and indicating the researcher's knowledge and experience in the field of scientific research.
- It is based on accurately solving the issues and problems in question.
- Consider sources and references as a link between the past and the present.
- We can learn about the extent of human development in all fields through sources and references.
- Sources and references indicate the extent of the currentness of the information on which the researcher is based.
- Knowledge development through data accumulation.
- Sources and references are an indirect means of exchanging cultures.
Distinguished scientific research is a guide to the advancement of ancient universities, and a real addition to the renaissance of mankind. What you write may be directed to a university for the purpose of obtaining a university degree, or a scientific conference, or a scientific journal, or to deliver it in a lecture, or to a scientific body, and each type has a different method in its writing system, although the general method may be the same.
Specialists defined the nature of scientific research references as having structured information, and therefore their use is limited to referring to them to obtain information that benefits the researcher only without reading the entire reference.
The difference between the regular book and the reference is that the regular book is read from beginning to end. While the reference book is the book that is consulted by the researcher when he needs to obtain some information.
Hence, it becomes clear to us that the references of scientific research are characterized by certain characteristics, which are:
- It is to be put where you go back to him regarding certain information.
- It is not read in full. But the information that it be selected according to the researcher in his research.
- It is not a sequential series. As each part of it does not depend on the other parts of the same book.
- Structured in a way to facilitate the researcher access to information.
- With extensive information.
In general, we can mention that the scientific research references are all that the researcher uses in his research. And also, records them at the end of the research.
Sources are not the same as references; There is a difference between them. Which is that the sources are books that contain information and new sciences that no one has preceded. So, the sources are the assets.
The references are books based on their content sources, and may be annotated to her, the researcher does not draw on Datum all, but looking inside partial that could benefit him in his research.
In other words, researchers in this field say that:
References are modern studies that treat the subject by absorbing the original material and extracting it in a new dress. We can differentiate between the source and the reference based on the degree of connection between the knowledge in the book and the subject of the research. If the link is direct, it is considered a source, and if it is indirect, it is considered a reference.
The references are divided into two main sections:
Direct references: They that give the researcher of information directly of, such as encyclopedias, periodicals issued by official bodies, and the books of biography, and others.
Indirect references: These are the ones that indicate the researcher to the source from which he can derive his information that he needs.
- The name of the author or authors begins with the last name of the first author, then a comma, then the first name or the initials of the first and second name of the same author if known, followed by the name of the second and third authors, and the rest of the names in the same way, separating the authors’ names with the letter “waw” in case Arabic references followed by a dot.
- Publication year in Arabic numerals (in parentheses) followed by a dot year.
- Book title: The title is written in full as it appears and without any abbreviations. It is written in italics Italian the title of the book is followed by a dot. (The italics in the examples below are for illustrative purposes only).
- Place of publication, then two dots, then the name of the publisher, followed by a dot.
- Name of the author or authors: as in the book references.
- Publication year enclosed in parentheses ( ) followed by a period.
- Full article title without any abbreviations followed by a period.
- The name of the journal in which the article appeared, then a comma, then the volume number, ( then the part or number in parentheses if the parts are not cumulative ) followed by a comma, then the journal page numbers followed by a period.
- Write the name of the journal and volume number in italics (Italian). (An italic in the examples below have been colored for illustrative purposes only).
A quotation is carried out according to different ways, and these methods are represented in:
- Transmit the text completely without change, and the text must be placed in parentheses so that the researcher is not accused of plagiarizing the text and attributing it to himself.
- Shortening and summarizing the text in case the researcher needs to quote an entire topic or idea that occupies many pages.
- Paraphrasing the text in the style of the researcher.
We can define documentation as referring to the source of the information, to help accumulate knowledge, and enhance the ethics of scientific research, and one of the most important ways to document references:
One of the very important steps in scientific research is to write and document sources and references in sound ways, and these methods are represented in writing in this manner.:
Author's name - reference name - place of publication - publishing house - year of publication - part - page.
If the book is translated, the reference is written as follows:
Author's name - name of reference - name of translator - place of publication - publishing house - year of publication - part - page.
If the reference is periodic, it is written as follows:
Author's name - article title - journal title - volume number - date of publication - page.
With greetings: Al - Manara Consulting to help researchers and graduate students