The research methods are useful and wonderful, in which the researcher goes through a large number of situations from which the researcher learns a lot. And the more the researcher goes through an experience, the more his experience in the field of research increases. The researcher who prepares his first research only will find it very difficult to prepare it, and he may need the help of others. And with the multiplicity of research carried out by the researcher. He will find the research becomes faster, and the experience will be greater.
There are many reasons that motivate the researcher to do research. Obtaining a scientific degree may be one of the reasons that motivate the researcher to do research. Or the researcher may undertake research in his desire to provide a benefit to science. And the researcher may seek through his research to reach senior positions in places certain. The research space is wide in front of the researcher, who can choose any topic from it, in order to be able to prepare it.
However, when choosing a topic for research, the researcher must make sure that this topic is within his competence. That is, the field of the topic of research is one of the fields that the researcher likes and that he has a great knowledge of. The researcher must also be keen that his research provides a benefit to science. And this is possible through the researcher’s selection of new and non-expendable topics, which have not been studied before. Research has a set of methods and steps that the researcher must follow. And in the following we will present the most important methods and steps of a research.
There are many methods of scientific research, in which these methods are used depending on the type of research that is being pursued. And research methods in science depend on what is known as the scientific method. Because an individual's beliefs can influence how they interpret certain phenomena. Using these specific methods researchers can reduce errors based on their own biases. All research methods depend on the scientific method, and the scientific method contains four basic components. Where the process begins with a basic observation and description of this phenomenon. And the observations lead researchers to ask questions about why some phenomena occur. Also then researchers put forward a certain hypothesis or predict what will happen or what will be It has some phenomena. And researchers then conduct specific types of experiments that aim to prove or disprove this prediction.
And now will explain in details about the methods of the research:
First, the quantitative research methods:
The quantitative approach is one of the approaches used in the implementation of scientific research. And it contains study tools through which it is possible to access a digital reality that has its meaning. Then the researcher finds himself in front of data or information that involves categorizing and examining important results. Through which he market recommendations and proposals for scientific research. Extracted at the end of the research. And each of the schools interested in scientific research has its opinion on the research method used. There are some who prefer to use quantitative methods and others prefer qualitative methods. And in this article, we will learn about the general features of the quantitative approach and its characteristics. And we will market at the end of the research the most appropriate approach to research Scientific method. Whether quantitative or qualitative method.
Idiomatic definition of quantitative research methods
What is meant by the word “quantitative” here is the amount of a thing according to a certain number, and the interrogative tool “how much?”; To be used in the question for the purpose of identifying the scale, for example: How tall are you? I am 192 cm tall; how much do you weigh? I weigh 96 kg, what is the height of the building? The height of the building is 30m, what time is it now? The time is now three in the afternoon....and so on.
Definition of the quantitative approach: It is defined as: “One of the measurement methods that are used in scientific research and studies, to test hypotheses, and then apply the acquired theories and concepts on the ground for scientific research.”
Some experts in scientific research liken the quantitative method to being the big map used by desert goers. to reach their goal; To discover a specific area, or to reach a specific place, as well as the map to clarify the relationship between one place and another.
What are the steps of scientific research according to the quantitative method?
We will illustrate this with a simplified scientific research model on the problem of population inflation and per capita GDP; So that the nature of the quantitative approach becomes clear to the reader:
- Title: Population growth and per capital GDP.
- The importance of the study: The importance of the study is the suffering that exists in society as a result of the increasing growth in the
- Population numbers, and the impact of this on what the individual gets from the national product, here the researcher saw the existence of a research problem that he can formulate and study to reach solutions.
- Objectives of the study: To prove the impact of population growth on the national product.
- Study hypotheses: There is a relationship between population growth and per capita GDP, and this is a simplified hypothesis, but it is possible for the researcher to write down more than one hypothesis in the event of a desire to do so, and then realize many intertwined relationships between the original or fixed variable represented in population growth , and a lot of changing relationships affected by it.
- The results of the study: It is clear from the figures that were inferred.
- Comment: Through the foregoing, it is clear that the quantitative approach presented a set of numbers that actually proved the existence of the problem.
Second: qualitative research methods
Qualitative research is defined as the study that can be carried out or conducted in the context or natural situation, where the researcher collects data, quantities or images and then analyzes them in an inductive manner, focusing on the meanings mentioned by the participants and adding the process in a convincing and expressive language. A process of achieving understanding based on the distinct traditions of the scientific research method, which detects a social or human problem.
Qualitative research focuses on describing phenomena and a deeper understanding of them, and differs from quantitative research, which usually focuses on experimentation and revealing the cause or result based on numerical data.
Qualitative research has one or more methods of data collection. The most famous of research methods are as follows:
- Individual interviews: An interview is a verbal conversation between two people with the aim of collecting information related to the purpose of the study. In this type of data collection, some questions are prepared in advance. And they are asked to the target audience individually
- Specific groups: It is a similar method to the previous one, except that the interview is on a larger scale. In this method, we do not deal with one individual. But rather with a group of individuals in a group dialogue on a specific topic that is monitored, managed, and recorded by the researcher.
- Observations are a type of systematic data collection. In which researchers use all their senses to detect people in their natural states. There are two types of these observations that are used in qualitative data collection: participating and non-participating.
- Action research: In this method, the researcher is actively involved in changing the situation while conducting the research. In action research, researchers act as designers and stakeholders. Working with others to suggest a new course of action to help their community develop its strategies, activities and knowledge of the environment in which it operates.
Third: Mixed research method
Historically, mixed research methods began to be used more and more by researchers around the 1980. However, mixed research is considered fairly recent when compared to quantitative and qualitative research. Proponents of mixed research see it
It allows the researcher to research phenomena better than quantitative or qualitative research alone, and also gives the researcher the opportunity to form a more comprehensive picture.
What distinguishes mixed research is its ability to solve some of the problems found in some qualitative or quantitative research. By integrating quantitative and qualitative data with each other to give a deeper understanding of the research problem. And also take advantage of the advantages of each type of quantitative and qualitative research.
Definition of mixed research: It is a research based on a research methodology that includes collecting, analyzing and integrating data extracted from quantitative and qualitative tools.
Some justifications for using the mixed research method:
- When both quantitative and qualitative data are available and their integration provides the researcher with a better understanding of the research problem
- When the researcher sees that one type of research, whether quantitative or qualitative, does not lead to addressing the research problem or answering its questions
- And when the researcher wants to build a quantitative tool (eg, questionnaires) by first using a qualitative study (personal interviews).
- When the researcher wants to build a qualitative tool (eg, class notes) by first using a quantitative study (questionnaires).
With greetings: Al - Manara Consulting to help researchers and graduate students