In addition to honest errors and errors caused through negligence, another category of errors involves deception, making up data, or results (fabrication). Also, changing or misreporting data or results (falsification), and using the ideas or words of another person without giving appropriate credit (plagiarism). All strike at the heart of the values on which science is based. These acts of scientific misconduct not only undermine progress but the entire set of values on which the scientific enterprise rests. Anyone who engages in any of these practices is putting his or her scientific career at risk. Even infractions that may seem minor at the time can end up being severely punished.
Plagiarism is known as the act of stealing ideas and results from others and reflect them to the writer without giving credit to its real author. On the other side, scientific plagiarism identifies as the action were a writer/someone's idea, intentional works, outcomes, statements, and linguistic styles for other author/someone in any scientific field without giving credit to the actual author of these content.
The basic goal of plagiarism is to fraud the readers. In any scientific area, plagiarism is by students, teachers, scientists, and researchers considered as scientific plagiarism or scientific dishonesty. Keep in mind that plagiarism and any type of scientific plagiarism erode the foundations on which advances and developments in science are built.
Firstly, you must know that scientific publications are the product and final outcomes of scientific works. So, when you need to publish your work and scientific results there are some points to take care of. Once you publish your scientific working document, then it will be a source for reference in its field. If your scientific paper is credible, then your paper will contribute to the knowledge. As a scientist or researcher, you are responsible for what you are published. finally, you must be honest and give your readers real information about the field you write on.
In this paragraph, you will be deal with these important points to avoid fall into any type of plagiarism. These points are listed as follow:
First point: the first point to avoid plagiarism is to start as fast as you can. This means you must give yourself enough time to do your research and to write your scientific document. Once you write in a good space of time then you will focus on your writing document and follow scientific rules in writing.
Second point: the second point to avoid plagiarism is to do your own work by yourself. Be careful to know if the required writing document needs to do just by yourself, or you can do it with your friends.
Third point: the third point to avoid plagiarism is to use citations in your writing document as needed. So, when you write about others' work you must cite your sources. This will show you as an honest writer. The means of others work their ideas, phrases, statements, and words even if you point to others work directly on indirectly.
Fourth point: the fourth point to avoid plagiarism is to use paraphrasing. Using good paraphrasing means clearly understand the content of the original source. And not to transfer what you read and put it in your paper. Do not forget to use quotes when you talk about others' works.
Fifth point: the fifth point to avoid plagiarism is to use quotation marks in their needed places.
Sixth point: the sixth point to avoid plagiarism is to ask for help as you need it. When you are not sure about some information or do not understand something, you must ask others who can help you in this stage.
As its name seems self-plagiarism means the action of trying to take any of your own previously published text and make it a new text. You can say that in self-plagiarism you have plagiarized yourself. So, you are recycling your previous published information and show it as new information without presenting discoveries. Therefore, when you reuse your previously published information, you will lose your honesty and your place in your field. In some cases, self-plagiarism is considered an infringement of copyrights.
Lastly, when you need to use your past published materials be sure that you cite the original publication. If you avoid plagiarism, then you will save time in the publishing process.
Here are the most common types of plagiarism which are listed as follow:
- Copying plagiarism. In this type someone goes to copy the sentence, a paragraph from others' work without give credit.
- Self-plagiarism. Where someone reusing what he/ she published before and publishes it as new discovery information.
- Idea's plagiarism. It is the worst type of plagiarism where someone steals ideas from others and claiming that these ideas are yours.
- Copying the results from previously published figures.
- Passing off an entire piece of work by someone else as your own.
As a student, writer, author, or anyone you must consider why plagiarism is a big deal and you must know how to avoid it. Some tips are listed as follow:
- For some universities and academic institutions, plagiarism is considered a violation of the rules of academic conduct. Here plagiarism may result in the suspension of the student who plagiarized from the academic institution.
- Any plagiarism is considered dishonest that’s because plagiarism misrepresents the other's works as it's yours.
- At first, you are cheating yourself when you do plagiarism thus because you do not develop your ideas or learning new things.
- Another thing is that plagiarism undermines the value of the other's work.
- Words, results, and ideas are possessions for their owner so, it is immoral to steal other's possessions.
- For rules of copyrights, it is illegal to steal other's ideas and words.
In this paragraph, we will discuss the common types of plagiarism that are common in academic writing. Note that the different types of plagiarism are serious violations of academic honesty. These types are listed as follow:
- Direct plagiarism
- Mosaic plagiarism
- Accidental plagiarism
Now, we will discuss the first two types of academic plagiarism which are direct plagiarism and self-plagiarism. And in the next paragraph, we will discuss the other two types of academic plagiarism.
First academic plagiarism type: Direct plagiarism
The deliberate plagiarism of others' work and is unethical. Direct plagiarism is the word-to-word transcription of others' work without giving attribution or credit and without using quotation marks. This type of plagiarism is considered academically dishonest, and grounds for disciplinary actions, including expulsion.
Second academic plagiarism type: self-plagiarism
We talk about this type of plagiarism in previous paragraphs. Self-plagiarism is a type of plagiarism where a student submits the previous work he did and shows it as a new work. And without permission from all professors involved. Self-plagiarism also occurs when submitting the same piece of assignment work in different classes without previous permission from both professors.
Third academic plagiarism type: Mosaic Plagiarism
Mosaic Plagiarism is also called patchwriting which is a type of paraphrasing and it occurs when a student borrows phrases from a source without using quotation marks. Also, it occurs when finds synonyms for the author’s language while keeping to the same general structure and meaning of the original. Whether the mosaic plagiarism happens intentionally or not, is academically dishonest and punishable even if you footnote your source.
Fourth academic plagiarism type: Accidental Plagiarism
Accidental plagiarism happens in three different cases which are:
- If a student misquotes the required cited sources.
- When a person/ student neglects to cite the required sources.
- If a student/ person unintentionally paraphrases a source by using similar words, groups of words, and/or sentence structure without attribution
While accidental plagiarism is happening intentionally, but it still considers academic dishonesty and is subject to the same range of consequences as other types of plagiarism.
Note that the students must learn how they can cite their sources? And to take careful and accurate notes when doing research.
The important topic to avoid plagiarism is to cite sources when you use quotations. And the citing sources will allow you to:
- Enable the others to be verifying your research or also to build upon your research.
- Improve yourself within academic and personal integrity.
- Participate in the community and society of scholars.
- Show your awareness and knowledge about other scholars' ideas on a subject.
- Give credit and attribution for others' work.
- Distinguish between which ideas are yours and which come from other researchers.
- Avoid the serious academic and personal consequences of plagiarizing.
With greetings: Al - Manara Consulting to help researchers and graduate students