The tools of methodology in scientific research are the same as the tools of the study. But the title of this article is logically close to the methodology of research with tools because tools are a means of scientific methods. So, whether we say tools of methodology in scientific research or we say tools of study in scientific research. They are both one.
In this article, we will first identify the most important tools of methodology in scientific research. And then put a proposal that fits each of the main tools. And then move on to other matters that increase awareness about the tools of methodology in scientific research.
Many tools fall under the methodological tools in scientific research, and each of these tools has its formative structure. Information is also collected using these tools in different ways depending on the tool used. Each of these tools performs its function according to its method of use. And for this, the researcher must get acquainted with the entire scientific research methodology tools. Because each study will require the researcher to use certain tools and there should not be similarity in the studies to the other for the tools used. The following are points are the number of detailed points for the most important tools of methodology in scientific research:
- First: the questionnaire: the questionnaire is the most popular tool and it is very easy to identify as it is a set of multiple-choice questions written by the researcher and directed to the sample. And the sample answers it and then the researcher collects it and unloads the data.
- Second: The Note Card: It depends on the focused observations of the sample members. Or the phenomena that the researcher deals with. And all these observations are recorded in real-time.
- Third: the personal interview: In which the researcher talks with the sample members. Asks questions and discusses with them to obtain information. The personal interview is considered one of the most reliable methodological tools in scientific research. Because it brings information directly from the sample and by interacting with it.
- Fourth: The test: It is also called the experiment. In which the test or experiment is conducted on the research sample and the information is written through the results of the test or experiment.
Methodological tools in scientific research implement a set of interrelated functions, but before we mention these functions, we must mention these functions mainly related to the sample. With the phenomena that the researcher deals with, and the information that the researcher needs.
Because these tools come mainly as means of collecting information from the sample and phenomena, and below we will present these functions with a comment on each of them:
- Information gathering: There is no doubt that the process of collecting information is the central function performed by the methodological tools in scientific research. As we explained that the collection of information is done through the use of tools and directing them to the sample and the phenomena covered by the research. Here, the researcher must have predetermined the information he wants to obtain.
- Providing information for statistical analysis: One of the processes most associated with methodological tools in scientific research is the process of statistical analysis. These tools are the main provider of data included in the statistical analysis.
- Communication between the researcher and the sample: The methodological tools in scientific research are among the things that connect the researcher with the sample. For example, in the questionnaire, the researcher can address the sample through questions, and an observation. Observations are considered as visual and intellectual communication between the researcher and the sample.
- Confirmation of the scientific method: looking at the sample first and then at the tools that will be used to study this sample. The researcher chooses the appropriate scientific method to write his research. Because the nature of the information collected by the study tools constitutes the basic material for the formulation that the researcher will follow according to the scientific method.
We cannot say that the so-and-so tool is more important than the other tools in the study tools. Because all the methodological tools in scientific research are important. But we can ask the question in another way. Which is (when is one of the tools more important than the others?). Judging this importance comes according to data and needs that must be paid attention to. And in the following proposition the intent becomes clearer:
- First: Looking at the sample, the required information, and the researcher's financial and intellectual capabilities, among others. Determines which tools are more suitable than others for use in the research. These matters are considered among the basic determinants of choosing the study tool.
- Second: All study tools are suitable for all scientific fields, but in some fields, some study tools are frequently used, for example, the educational and social field in which questionnaires are frequently used, and the scientific field in which observation is frequently used, and the medical field in which personal interview and observation are also used extensively, but Here it all comes in according to the requirements of the study.
- Third: The use of questionnaires and personal interviews is more appropriate than observation if the sample is easy to study and understands what the researcher is doing. But if the sample is difficult to deal with the researcher, then observation is more appropriate than others.
- Fourth: It can be said that some study tools are more appropriate than others in financial terms, for example, the questionnaire requires more costs than observation, but here the subject of the research and the sample must be selectable among the study tools.
One of the things that many researchers do. Is that it is possible to collect more than one of the methodological tools in scientific research in one research. For example, the questionnaire, as well as observation, can be used in one research. But this combination of study tools must be logical according to what the study requires. For example, if the study has a research sample of varying characteristics. Some of which can be studied by questionnaire and others cannot be studied except by observation.
Then the researcher must use the two tools. Also, what is important in this field is that the combination of methodological tools in scientific research is not governed by the type of tool. Meaning that it is possible to combine any tool with any other tool in the same research. And this saying comes in contrast to some sayings that say that the combination is conditional not Collecting the questionnaire and observation in the same research. And the permissibility of combining the questionnaire with any other material except for the observation and the permissibility of collecting the observation with any other material except the questionnaire. But the correct saying is that the questionnaire and observation can be combined because they are interrelated in the goal, even if the method is different.
There is a strong relationship between the study tools and the scientific methods used in the research. If the tools provide information for research, the curricula will use this information and formulate it within the research. It can also be said that the methodological tools in scientific research deliver information to the scientific curricula. Then the scientific curricula perform the process of analysis and discussion. And its formulation, both parties are indispensable to the other. As well as the beholder of the study tools and scientific methods find that they are primarily concerned with the sample or phenomenon that the researcher deals with in his research.
On the other hand, the study tools are referred to in the research plan. And the same applies to scientific methods. Each of the study tools and scientific methods is referred to in the plan by defining them. The reasons for their selection and their function in the research. As well as the study tools are related to the scientific methods in terms of overlap in the theoretical frame for research.
The methodological tools in scientific research are characterized by many advantages specific to each of the tools. As well as some disadvantages are taken on these tools, which are the questionnaire, observation, and personal interview:
- First: The questionnaire has many advantages that make it at the forefront of use in research around the world. The questionnaire template is well-known by people and therefore easy to accept from the research sample.
- Second: Observation has many advantages, as it makes the researcher closely monitor the sample and phenomena. This increases the researcher’s perceptions of what the researcher is dealing with in his research.
- Third: The personal interview is characterized by the fact that it allows the researcher to talk directly with the sample members. This means that the researcher can obtain information of great accuracy.
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